Introduction to Ranked Ballots

The Introduction to Ranked Ballots slide deck provides a comprehensive introduction to ranked ballots and RaBIT. This deck highlights the benefits or using ranked ballots, how ranked ballots work, key research that has been done on the impact of ranked ballots in other jurisdictions, and the history of RaBIT's campaign to bring ranked ballots to Toronto. The deck also addresses some common misconceptions around ranked ballots and includes lots of links to research and other useful information. This is an ideal resource for someone who is looking to learn the basics about ranked ballots while also having access to additional information should they want to explore particular aspects more deeply. 

Fact Sheets

Why Ranked Ballots

Ranked ballots are a small, simple change that will make a big impact on Toronto’s elections by making them more fair, inclusive, and friendly. This one-page resource explains how, and also offers a brief explanation of how ranked ballot voting works.

Ranked Ballots Explained

Ever wondered how a ranked ballot election works? This one-page resource explains how, including how ballots are marked, how they are counted in the first round, how votes are re-allocated in subsequent rounds if a voter's first choice candidate is eliminated, and how the winner of the election is determined. 

Ranked Ballots and the Math of Voting

Ranked ballots are a tried and tested method of voting that have been used for more than 100 years. Mathematicians have studied the theoretical and real-world effects of using every conceivable form of voting. The conclusion is that by allowing voters to select their most preferred candidates, ranked ballots can eliminate strategic voting.

Ranked Ballots and One Person, One Vote

The principle of "one person, one vote" is integral to any voting system. Ranked ballots uphold this principle. In fact, ranked ballots offer a dramatic improvement over first-past-the-post in safeguarding this principle, which is why political parties use ranked ballots to elect their own leaders.

Ranked Ballots and Electing "Winners"

Ranked ballots uphold the principle of majority rule and provide more genuine voter choice than the current system. By earning more than 50% of the overall vote, the winning candidate under ranked ballots demonstrates that they are the candidate with the most support and therefore the real winner in a truly democratic contest. 

Ranked Ballots and Diversity

Ranked ballots produce results that are more representative of a city's diversity than the current first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting system. Ranked ballots have shown their potential to gradually increase ethnic, racial and political diversity in addition to boosting female representation in government, by encouraging more female and minority candidates to seek office and by empowering diverse communities. 

Conservative Voices for Ranked Ballots in Toronto

Some conservative voices in Toronto who are in favour of ranked ballots and instant runoff voting. 

General Information About Ranked Ballots/Instant Runoff Voting

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs • Guide to Ranked Ballot Elections for Ontario Municipalities 

FairVote USA • Instant Runoff Voting

Electoral Reform Society • Instant Runoff Voting (Note: they call it "Alternative Vote")

Wikipedia • Instant Runoff Voting

Other Groups

123Ontario • A network of municipal voting reform campaigns across the province

Unlock Democracy • A national campaign for proportional representation


ACE Electoral Knowledge Network • An online knowledge repository about elections around the world